Friday, May 22, 2020

Use of e-HRM deliver more cost effective service - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1486 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Information Systems Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION Huub J.M Ruel and Tanya Bondarouk defines e-HRM as a way of implementing policies, strategies and practices in organizations through the conscious support and with the full use of channels based on on-line technologies on the web. Throughout Europe E-HRM has been a common practice and two thirds of all the organizations in Europe have already adopted them. The major determinants of adopting e-HRM are the size, work organization and configuration of HRM. (Stefan Strohmeie, RÃ ¼diger Kabst(2009). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Use of e-HRM deliver more cost effective service" essay for you Create order Organizational adoption of e-HRM in Europe Journal of Managerial Psychology vol 24. no-6p p482-501) The main goal of E-HRM is actually to improve the efficiency of the human resources administration to achieve reduction in cost within the organization by using various e-HRM processes like using e-HRM to recruit employees etc. cuts the manual cost of the whole recruitment process as it is done digitally. In this essay we are going to be discussing about the use of E-HRM and how it delivers low cost service to an organization and why it was adopted or why it is preferred, what is expected out of it, what are its advantages and disadvantages? How it functions? Is it actually helping in cutting the cost of the organizations a lot? What are the outcomes? What exactly is E-HRM? Well, it is basically the planning, implementation and application of information technology for both networking and supporting at least two individual or collective actors in their shared performing of human resource activities ( N. Venkateswaran Asst. Professor, Department of Management Studies, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai, 2007 ). Here the word implementing has a very broad meaning, for example to make something work or to put something into practice in order to have it realized. LITERATURE REVIEW E-HRM is a fast way of doing HRM .It was adopted or in other words discovered in the first place, for both the profit and the non-profit organizations, they have replaced the online based HRM tools with the face to face HRM for the employees and the managers since the 90s. Organizations generally prefer E-HRM because of its numerous advantages. In order to have better productivity and efficiency gradual implementation is adopted in organizations, another important feature of e-HRM is its nature of adapting to any client, and as the basis for strategic decision-making it collects information for it, and it also collects information for all the other basic and support processes in the organization. E-HRM also helps in giving a prompt insight into reporting and analyzing the organizations functions, it also has a main role in giving a better continuous workflow in the process of the business, its efficiency, productivity and better employee satisfaction. Since E-HRM is a decisi ve step towards a paperless office, it helps in lowering the business costs more effectively and efficiently. According to ( N.Venkateswaran, department of management studies, Panimar engineering college, Chennai, 2007 ) for a more cost effective benefit, most of the organizations choose E-HRM as compared to the other available options because of its modularity and the solutions can also be accessed and used in a web browser.There is a good level of data security and access to individual modules are protected .It records the documents and their component parts, has a parametric and customizability character, access to archived records and documents, the interface is user-friendly and there is a good level of connectivity with the clients existing information system for example the enterprise resource planning, payroll accounting, attendance registration, document systems and lastly it also has a multi-language support. In order to standardize and harmonize the HR processes and policies the multinational companies also appear to use the introduction of e-HRM. Therefore from the above mentioned details we can sum up the reasons or goals of organizations in making steps toward e-HRM .There are mainly three of them, firstly to improve the strategic orientation of human resource management, secondly to Reduce the costs of the organization and thirdly to improve the Client service by facilitating the management and the employees. By now we are aware that the use of e-HRM helps in reducing the cost of the business, but we are not aware of how e-HR Management reduces the cost of the business. Here we will be discussing about how it does so. Basically e-HRM automates the key human resource business process which in turn reduces the services delivery costs, it also reduces the correction costs by improving the accuracy of the human resource information, since the informations are available on the web to the employees the printing and distribution costs are elim inated, which might also be found as an eco-friendly plus and the employees productivity is also improved by providing universal access on 24/7 basis, lastly it enables more cost effective decision through improved analysis of human resource information (John Storey, (2007) Human resource management 3rd edition ). Based upon Beer et Al.s suggestions about the expected outcomes of human resource management, it is crystal clear that a certain set of outcomes are aimed to be achieved by e-HRM . The e-HRM goals are usually confused with the e-HRM outcomes but actually there is a huge difference between the goals and outcomes. As mentioned earlier, E-HRM is an approach of carrying out HRM, It is a way of thinking about and using HRM strategies, policies and practices. Most of the organizations expect to achieve certain goals by following specific E-HRM guidelines, like to make progress in the Human Resources strategic orientation, an improvement in consumer focus and satisfaction, and a decline in costs or an increase in efficiency. These goals can lead to expected outcomes. Along with the set up goals ,depending upon the way in which individuals and common parties want to be affected by e-HRM, the outcomes will to some extent change the state of HRM within the organization and through individuals or groups it will actually end up in a fresh HRM state. (Academic review Ruel, HuubÂÂ  andÂÂ  Bondarouk, TanyaÂÂ  andÂÂ  Looise, Jan KeesÂÂ  (2004)E-HRM: Innovation or Irritation: An Explorative Empirical Study in Five Large Companies on Web-based HRM.ÂÂ  Management Revue, 15 (3). pp. 364-380) Therefore we can draw that though E-HRM has its disadvantages, for example the use of e-HRM can lead to the separation of staff members in the organization that needs personal support, the need for interaction among the staff members and the manager also reduces i.e. the managers and the staff members have lesser face-time and the risk of losing touch with the staff members also increases, it is also Subject to corruption, hacking and data losses as it is done using IT. Yet the advantages takes over its disadvantages as it helps the organizations to deliver a more cost effective service to its business and it is indeed a boon to any organization especially the multinational or very large firms as it gets very difficult to manage the employees at different levels and to gather massive amount of information about them, their achievements, history of career, analyzing it, comparing etc. becomes very difficult, therefore E-HRM makes it easier for the organizations to function smoothly by improving the HRs administrative efficiency to achieve cost reduction, by helping to improve the employee competences, resulting directly in cost reduction and a reduction of the administrative weight. Nowadays we have a whole range of products that we can implement in a company HR department that will support all analytics and decision maki ng and make our life easier. Software and its major benefits that I am writing about are HRMS/HRIS platform solutions, complete Talent Lifecycle management, you can record and manage personnel records, automatically generate reports and letters etc. Basically from recruitment, pay reviews, salary analysis and trainings up to stock options, succession and career and creation of HR Character, You can do more than you can imagine, but we have to remember to first find out quite a lot of time to make a market research for the best software or pay big amount of money to make your own bespoke one, but especially in big corporations Return of Investment of this purchase is very high, after a while you will ask yourself how could I work without it?. E-HRM saves you time every aspect of HR management is encouraged for a more collaborative approach CONCLUSION Therefore in laymans language we can conclude by stating that e-HRM is the next it thing and a boon for huge companies as it makes their work more efficient by making all the work just a click way! BIBLOGRAPHY (Stefan Strohmeie, RÃ ¼diger Kabst(2009). Organizational adoption of e-HRM in Europe Journal of Managerial Psychology vol 24. no-6p p482-501) ( N.Venkateswaran, (2007) e-HRMdepartment of management studies, Panimar engineering college, Chennai, Academic review Ruel, HuubÂÂ  andÂÂ  Bondarouk, TanyaÂÂ  andÂÂ  Looise, Jan KeesÂÂ  (2004)E-HRM: Innovation or Irritation: An Explorative Empirical Study in Five Large Companies on Web-based HRM.ÂÂ  Management Revue, 15 (3). pp. 364-380) John Storey, (2007) Human resource management 3RD edition

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Technology And Farming During The World - 809 Words

Technology and Farming Introduction Many advances in farming have helped the world grow and prosper, for example, technology has changed farming drastically by enabling farm equipment to be motorized, allowing farmers to be able to farm more land and more crops, and by allowing scientists to experiment and make hybrid crops. Advances in science has enabled a massive growth in animal care and how animals are raised. Motorized Equipment To begin with, the equipment used for farming has dramatically changed from horses pulling plows to tractors being computerized and automatically created to do the all the work. â€Å"Agricultural technology is among of the most revolutionary and impactful areas of modern technology† (Agricultural†¦show more content†¦Around 1700, Jethro Tull invented a horse-drawn seed drill, this allowed farmers to stop hand sowing (How Modern Farming Has Changed the World, 2016). â€Å"Farmers cut crops with scythes and manually removed the seeds before bundling the stalks†(Dove, 2016, p.1). â€Å"Through the use of technology, each farmer is able to feed 155 people today, compared to 1940, when one farmer could feed only 19 people†(Comparing Agriculture of the Past with Today, 2016, p.1). Automatic milkers and computerized feeders allow dairy farmers to take care of up to 200 cows (How Modern Farming Has Changed the World). Even the simplest of inventions made the biggest impact, barbed wired made it easy for farmers to keep their cattle in their land (The Science and Technology of Agriculture, 2016), barbed wire allowed cows to transition from grazing to cattle raising (The Science and Technology of Agriculture, 2016). Advances in technology made the industrial revolution possible by farmers being able to provide cheap food for towns (How Modern Farming Has Changed the World, 2016). Advances in Science and Animal Care â€Å"Commercial fertilizer, a blend of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash, allows farmers to realize high yields on their crops and to use the same plot of land year upon year for their crops† (Dove, 2016, p.1). â€Å"Between 1890 and 1899, American farmers

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Unusual Article Uncovers the Deceptive Practices of Ib Tok Essay Samples

Unusual Article Uncovers the Deceptive Practices of Ib Tok Essay Samples The Good, the Bad and Ib Tok Essay Samples Because the subject matter of the training course is defined regarding knowledge difficulties, there isn't any limit to the valid questions that may emerge in a TOK program. Your knowledge question should enable a number of viewpoints so you are not as limited when developing your ToK essay. Making certain your evidence actually supports your claim is among the toughest characteristics of the essay. In TOK they have the chance to step back from this relentless acquisition of new understanding, to be able to consider knowledge troubles. The primary goal is to specify a universal standard to high-school students who dwell in various countries all over the world. Regardless of the mention of technology, it would be best to put attention to the association between shared and personal understanding. Don't be afraid to give us a try as we guarantee to give you the most effective possible service you're able to acquire online. You may also consider looking at an exemplar online for each question which you're thinking about. Writing Metier has all of the perfect tricks under its sleeves as soon as it comes to constructing the ideal ToK essay for you. This video and audio course will offer you all of the secrets you should do it. Examine this issue by employing psychological and sociological concepts. If you believe you can develop a specific issue with own thoughts and expertise, this topic is ideal for you. Second, you must make sure to want to know more about the subject. That's the only means you can be certain that your essay is authentic and original. If you're writing a TOK essay as a distinct assignment and in the event the topic was chosen by yourself, you're free to choose the term count limit unless it properly discusses the info. Every sort of essay discussion has to get an outline as that is an essential part of a successfully written article. Along with this, if you're in need of a ToK essay on an urgent basis, we provide the facility of finding the essay in 3 hours deadline. Begin with an introductory paragraph, where you provide background information along with explain the topic and the range of research specifically. You might cover the subject of privilege here. Ib Tok Essay Samples: the Ultimate Convenience! Therefore, be prepared that the job of writing a TOK essay won't be easy. Your thesis and introductory paragraph is really going to drive the duration of your essay. It is crucial to stock to a particular mode of TOK essay organization. Our crew of experienced IB writers are here to assist you with all your IB needs. As an IB student, you are conversant with each of the regions of knowledge. If you want to find more information regarding the deadline for a specific school, please contact that school directly. If your school isn't one already, learn to turn into an IB World School as a way to implement the DP. Schools and supervisors are strongly advised to set internal deadlines for different phases of the different TOK components. Look out for the TOK essay word limit as things can acquire deep and wordy in this portion of the TOK writing. Accordingly, in the event of a TOK essay, the conclusion doesn't differ from the remainder of academic papers. Be certain that it is very well thought out, and that you are able to back up your thesis with a good deal of evidence also. All science is critical. No, there's no particular word limit in TOK essays. Don't overlook the word limit, which couldnot exceed 1,600 words, otherwise it is going to be penalized. Ensure you provide a counter-argument alongside with your principal argument. Provide solid reasons to strengthen your argument.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Israel and Terrorism Essay - 5164 Words

Introduction: The Conflict, Cause for Optimism, and Skepticism Over the past 55 years conflict between Israelis and Palestinians has led to three wars, years of terrorism, and decades of poverty and displacement resulting in thousands upon thousands of deaths among both peoples. Despite the conflict, Israel has managed to develop its economy thanks in large part to generous foreign aid. Palestinians, however, have largely been living in poverty, under the rule of a corrupt government and in fear of Israeli strength. These harsh conditions have no doubt exacerbated the conflict sparked by the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. The establishment of a Palestinian state living side by side with Israel is supported by many world†¦show more content†¦This incitement has largely led Palestinians to hate Jews for religious, racist and social reasons, as opposed to feeling anger because of political grievances. The PA has also educated its people, regarding the conflict with Israel, that the state of Israel is evil, vicious, and aggressive and that they are required by Allah to fight the Israelis through any means possible until Israel is gone. Finally, the PA has glorified terrorists and terrorism throughout its culture as noble and heroic. The combination of these three forms of education has created a culture among Palestinians that has harmed and continues to harm the prospects for progress toward peace. I will argue first that PA allegations that Jews are subhuman and enemies of Muslims lead to a culture of hatred and violence that conflicts with the development of a two-state solution. Second, the PA education regarding the illegitimacy, aggression and brutality of the state of Israel makes it even less likely that Palestinians will accept its continued existence. Third I will argue that PA incitement to and glorification of suicide terrorism adds further to the difficulty of getting Palestinians to seek and support a peaceful coexistence. Finally, I will offer suggestions for what changes need to be made by both Israel and the PA to foster change in Palestinian society and begin planting the seeds of peaceShow MoreRelatedTerrorism Paper1425 Words   |  6 Pages(What Is Terrorism? Pg. 1). Ladies and gentlemen, I am of course talking about the agonizing issue of terrorism. Although this issue has existed for centuries, the word terrorism has only begun being used in the second par t of the 19th century (What Is Terrorism? Pg. 1). The earliest account of a terrorist act in the second part of the 19th century was in 1968 when a Palestinian terrorist hijacked an Israeli airliner (What Is Terrorism? Pg. 4). There are two other factors which aid terrorism: one beingRead MoreTerrorism, Employment, and Education1357 Words   |  6 PagesThis paper attempts to explain whether economic depravity in a region leads to support for terrorism using the case of the Israel/Palestine conflict in the Gaza strip. I will present and analyse quantitative data from a public opinion poll conducted in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, which queried participants about their support for militant and terrorist attacks against Israel. The presented data will be supplemented by statistics from the data that Alan B. Krueger of Princeton University thatRead More State-Sponsored Terrorism: The Relationship between Hizballah and the Iranian Government1729 Words   |  7 Pagesof the countr ies involved in state-sponsored terrorism make modest attempts to disassociate themselves with terrorist organizations. These countries do this in hopes that the United Nations will not place sanctions. More often than not, these countries continue their support of various terrorist groups. They support the terrorist organization in various ways: financially, training, supplies. Iran has remained the most active state sponsor of terrorism to date (State Department, 2013). Iran supportsRead More Middle East Essay1381 Words   |  6 Pagesland and under their control the conflict remained minimal. But within months of their departure, and the division of the land between Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, war broke out. The Arabs were unhappy with the UNs divisions of the land, and in an attempt to obtain the land, which they believed was rightfully theirs; they attacked the State of Israel. To the surprise of many, the armies of Egypt, Syria and Jordan fell to Israeli troops a nd instead of gaining land, they lost it. AlmostRead MoreEssay The Policies Of The Palestine Liberation Organisation1053 Words   |  5 Pagesdestroy the state of Israel. Inspired by Nasser in Egypt, they expected him to lead an Arab army in a campaign to successfully destroy Israeli power. However, time passed, and little progress was made, leading to many Palestinians becoming disillusioned with the help they received from the Arab states that they were relying on. Instead, they began to set up their own organisations, to defend Palestinian rights, and to fight against the state of Israel. One of the firstRead MoreThe War Of The Middle East952 Words   |  4 Pagesincreasing instability within the Arab nations. This has increased violence and terrorism in the Middle East, the effects of which is felt throughout the world. The main causes of this war and why it has not yet been solved can be found by digging deep into the concepts of â€Å"Greater Israel†, direct involvement of external forces and â€Å"petrodollars†. The main concept behind â€Å"Greater Israel† is to expand the territories of Israel and weaken the Arab forces. After the formation of the United Nations, the UNRead MoreWe Need a Precise Definition of Terrorism Essays1568 Words   |  7 PagesWe Need a Precise Definition of Terrorism In early 1974, the Secretary General of the United Nations, U Thant, invited the Palestinian Liberation Organization to attend the General Assembly gathering on November 13, 1974, and in doing so gave legitimacy to the Palestinian Liberation Organization as a governing body. In Yasser Arafat’s speech to the General Assembly, he thanked the United Nations for recognizing his organization and its legitimacy. When Arafat addressed the General Assembly,Read MoreThe Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism by Pape, Bloom, and Horowitz 1429 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Terrorism involves the use of violence by an organization other than a national government to cause intimidation or fear among a target audience;† at least, this is how Pape (2003) defines terrorism in his article â€Å"The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism† (343). The goal of this article by Pape is to discuss suicide terrorism and how it â€Å"follows a strategic logic, one specifically designed to co erce modern liberal democracies to make significant territorial concessions† (343). Similar to Pape,Read MoreThe History Of Israel1705 Words   |  7 PagesIsrael, a country of only 8.38 million people, has been thriving since its independence in the year 1948. It runs as a vibrant democracy and the Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, has successfully lead a coalition government consisting of right-leaning and religious parties. This 8,019 square mile country, â€Å"has a modern market economy with a thriving high-technology sector that attracts considerable foreign investment† (heritage.org, 1). Israel is surrounded by much larger and hateful countriesRead MoreThe Peace Of The Middle East1445 Words   |  6 PagesEver since the establishment of an Israeli state in the Middle East, there has been no time of peace between the many nations. After Israel was declared a nation, it was immediately rejected by the Palestinians and they rejected the partition of Palestine. E ver since then, Israel has been at war with its surrounding Middle Eastern neighbors multiple times. There has been a multitude of attempts to try and broker a peace throughout the Middle East and not a single plan has stood the test of time.

Alex Rikki Tikki Free Essays

Both the book and the film used the same plot but spent a different amount of time on the explanation of the mall points. Hat are you trying to say) The plot of the book developed at a very quick pace during the orientation and became more detailed throughout the violence. The book of Rick Talk-Table explains the life of a young mongoose that Is separated from his family and normal environment due to a summer flood. We will write a custom essay sample on Alex Rikki Tikki or any similar topic only for you Order Now The book involved two complications, one being Rick Tike’s separation for his family and the other being that deadly snakes are in charge of the new environment that he Is having to adapt into. The climax of the story was Risk’s first fight with a snake because it showed his revere and was the beginning of his adventure to defeating all the snakes. Rick Talk resolved both his problems by settling Into his new environment and found a new habitat. He also managed to kill the snakes and destroyed the eggs so that another dynasty of the snakes couldn’t begin. The theme of the book version of Rick Talk-Table Is bravery and courage which are both demonstrated by Roll throughout the whole story. The plot of the film is also the same as the book except there are changes of sequences of events. The plot of the film developed gradually from a slow orientation and description of the story to a very quick explanation and showing of the violence. The film version of Rick Tike-Davit did not explain the life of the young mongoose but showed it instead which added an effect on the viewer because what was happening could be seen, The orientation In the film was narrated In detail and the film also had the same two complications as the book does as the story outline of both the film and book was the same. The climax of the film version of Rick Tike-Davit was the battle between Rick Tike and Nag In the bathroom as the lead up to this moment was very slow and it begun to become more intense. In the film Rick managed to resolve the complications by also adapting into his new home and killing the snakes and there eggs. The theme of the film version of Rick Tickle-Davit Is loyalty, bravery and courage which are noticeably demonstrated by Rick as he looked up to elders and showed his bravery through his victorious fights. The setting and characters were both key components for both the film and book. The film developed the characters and settings of Rick Tike-Davit better than the book. The characters ad different personalities and characteristics to each other. Nag and Angina are both represented as evil characters but Anglia is smarter than Nag Is. Dare and his wife are also the same except they both have a different personality and characteristic. Dare is a low self-esteemed character who is not very smart and is scared. Whereas his wife, Is the smarter one out of the two and will do whatever’s required to guarantee her and her families safety, as shown when she flies down to slow down Angina during her battle with Rick. Characters’ feelings were not only toy 2 Angina had a low, deep hiss that the viewer could straight away interpret anger from and to show Risk’s anger his eyes changed into a sparkling red that helped the viewer identify his anger from. Anger was not the only characteristic shown through these visuals and sounds but it was the main one. Happiness was shown on Rick but the licking of his lips and his tail puffing up. Fear was shown through silhouettes and shadows creating a bigger version of the character. The setting in the film version of Rick Tike-Davit was explained in detail and was not only explained through words but also with visuals. Rather than having to describe the beginning of the story the filmmaker showed the audience and used sound effects to create a better understanding. The narrator in the film explained that the story was set in India whereas in the book it did not say where the story was set. The garden was the most described and was described positively through the perspective of Rick Tike-Davit. â€Å"This is a splendid hunting ground† is an example of Rick enjoying the sight of the garden. Language features were used in the book to engage the reader. The book erosion of Rick Tike-Davit used language features to engage the reader throughout the story. He could fluff up his tail till it looked like a bottle brush† is an example of simile that the book uses. Rick Tike’s tail is being compared to the fluffiness of a bottle brush and its softness. â€Å"Kicking and clucking† is an example of onomatopoeia that is used in at the beginning of the text through Risk’s Journey getting washed away. An example of alliteration in the text is â€Å"Good gracious† and â€Å"bottle-brushy’. These two phrases use the same letter at the beginning of the word consecutively. Another example of simile used in the text is â€Å"as big as summer houses†. Multimode and visual features are key aspects throughout the film. The film version of Rick Tike-Davit uses multimode and visual features very effectively to make the story more entertaining and appealing. The sound and music of the film is used to make the segment being shown more realistic. At the beginning to allow the viewer to understand that the video is set in India it begins with Indian music and to make the summer flood more realistic sounds of thunder cracks and lightning strikes are used. Sound and music is also used to show adventure or in between segments when the narrator is not speaking. The film uses different camera shots, ranging from close ups to landscape shots. The film uses close ups mainly when Rick is angry to show his red eyes and its importance and signification to representing anger. Landscape or full shots were used to show the garden and all its beautiful and natural expressions. The film version of Rick Tike-Davit created a better understanding of the story and its outline rather than the book. This is because the film did not only tell the story like the book did but also showed it to help the viewer understand it much better. The book version had a lot of detail but lacked visuals and could have used more pictures so that the reader does not have to use their imagination. This is great work, Alex. Vive made a few suggestions (in red), but haven’t corrected everything. I suggest that you re-read this critically and thoroughly and you’ll see most things you might need to correct. One suggestion: use italics when you are talking about the book or film title Rick Tike-Davit. How to cite Alex Rikki Tikki, Papers

Marketing Opportunities free essay sample

Profile BBQfun is one of Queenslands specialty retailers. The BBQfun brand is synonymous with barbeque retailing and is built on the strong foundation of selling barbeques and outdoor lifestyle itmes to Queensland consumers since 2009. BBQfun’s product range is primarily focussed on barbeques and outdoor lifestyle products, incorporating both local and important goods. BBQfun operates two store in Queensland, one in Brisbane and one at the Gold Coast. BBQfun provides to customer great value products, excellent customer service, continuously improvement and innovation and is trusted by more than 10,000 customers in Queensland. Situation analysis The retail market changed over the last few years, it became more competitive than ever before. Therefore consumer buying patters changed as well. BBQfun increased they market share until 2010 steadily to $10m. Since 2010, sales dropped dramatically because of changes in the retail market, technology and changed consumer behavior. BBQfun has moderate pricing, extensive and high-quality product range, excellent customer service and offer three year product guarantees as only one in the market. BBQfun has identify the basic market need is for quality, fashionable and unique outdoor lifestyle items. Market characteristics Queensland has a population growth of 5% (2. 5% in 2012 ABS) annual. New homes buyer and renovated houses growing steadily from a base of 50,000 per year. Unfortunately the low unemployment rate of 4,7% grow to 5. 4% in 2012 in Queensland. Therefore Queensland has now the second highest rate in Australia. BBQfun is targeting the geographic area of Brisbane with a total population of 2m people and also the direct area with a radius of 30km around the store. The aimed total targeted population is estimated at 450,000 people. Typical customer are males and females, age between 20 and 50 years. Amongst them is a high number of young professionals who working in the CBD of Brisbane and having completed under-graduated or post-graduated studies. The average disposable income is over $70k. Market needs BBQfun has identify the basic market need is for quality, fashionable and unique outdoor lifestlye items. Customer requirements Consumers like to have a wide range of different products and options. The store should be easily access-able with a minimal inconvenience for the customer. BBQfun has a great reputation for customer service which is always valued by consumers within this market. Consumer asking for price transparency to compare with competitors and payment plans. Products with warranty increasing consumer popularity. Market trends The trends in the market leads to quality, uniqueness and wider selection. Consumers who are in search for high quality items learn to appreciate value over price. Consumers like to have a vast selection or high diversity of products with varying price ranges. They are also looking for specialistic products which stand-out from the mass-productive crowd. Market Growth In 2009 the national outdoor lifestyle market reached 3 million dollars with an estimated growth of at least 6% over the next few years. Research demonstrates that consumers will be having a greater disposable income within the mere future with the assumption that on average two persons will be living under the same household. The economic forecast also states that interest rates will stay steady and will have no effect on disposable income. There is also an increasing popularity of T. V lifestyle programs which provides free-marketing to BBQfun. The market trend also shows that consumers are interested in high quality imports that remain affordable. Market Competition There are three major existing national competitors: The Yard, BBQ’s R Us and Outdoorz. The Yard is only become a threat to BBQfun if the business decision to enter the e-commerce market. Advantageously, The Yard does not trade in Queensland and currently has no marketing promotional actions. All of their products are good quality, Australian-made but highly priced. BBQ’s R Us is definitely a threat competitor who has a broad range of outdoor lifestyle products. Their main focus is on cheap imports and on already established markets. They have a strong replacement segment which is highly valued by consumers. However, their trading is mainly based in Adelaide and Melbourne which assist our market-share in Brisbane. BBQ’s R US are considering on entering the e-commerce market. Outdoorz has Australian-made outdoor lifestyle product with good value prices making them highly competitive to BBQfun. They have a few stores situated in every major city and the quality of their products range from low to medium. Alike BBQ’s R Us, Outdoorz has a strong focus on their replacement segment. They are gaining market strength in Brisbane and have a large advertising budget. If Outdoorz considers e-commerce marketing strategies, they will become a major threat out of the three. BBQfun’s local competition are mainly independent retailers. Our local competitors have products ranges that varied according to the owner’s preferences. They mostly sell Australian manufactured goods with an average item sale of $250/piece. All these independent retailers have a market share of 48% and a growing rate of 8% per year. Situation analysis summary BBQfun trades on a highly competitive growing market. Competitors fighting hard for every single market share. BBQfun is in a fortune situation to enter a niche market with only a few competitors and has also great potential to expand national wide. BBQfun has created an outdoor lifestyle range which is differentiated and superior to competitors. They offering a high quality range of products which costumer can see and test in stores. BBQfun offered to customer some great deals such as flexible payment plans, three year guarantee which is unique in the market, broadest range of products in the market, expert and friendly customer service and the most remarkable services that are better than anybody else. The marketing strategy will show how BBQfun can take advantage of this situation and increase significant they market share. Marketing strategy The advertising budget is $180k for the year 2012. The marketing campaign will mainly focus on print advertising such as magazines, direct mails and local newspaper. It is also consider a radio advertisement. Previous years showing a high increase of sales after publishing articles in the BrisNews magazine. That will be consider as the most successful strategy. The aim of the marketing strategy is to increase the loyalty customer from 10,000 to 16,000 and to establish a brand recognising in Queensland so that two out three people recognise BBQfun. BBQfun like to increase they growth rate at at least 10% within the next year and continuously growing the gross profit margin. Target market The target market is divided in three segments: new builds, renovations and replacements. A customer survey shows that BBQfun most loyal costumers are new builds. These group present 30% out of all costumers. All three segments groups are willing to buy online and pay for delivery. New builds are service, quality and price focus as well as loving to buy Australian made. They are loyal reader of the BrisNews magazine. Renovator usually living in other parts of the country and for them is service and quality the more important than price. Those consumer are loyal to print and online version of the Aspire Outdoor magazine. Replacement costumer are different. they love to support australian jobs and looking for good quality as well. Costumer service is not so important than price. These group are reader from BrisNews magazine as well. Marketing mix BBQfun pricing strategy is comparable prices for comparable quality. The value and quality are more important than the price but this will be backed up with a three year guarantee. BBQfun has two stores in Queensland which can be easily access and has large car parking arrangements. The most successful campaign will be ads and insert in the BrisNews, this along will reach 40% of loyal costumer, as well as informal articles and reviews. In-store promotion will take place and competitions with prizes to exotic destinations. BBQfun philosophy is ‘customer is king’ whatever needs to be done to make the customer happy must occur. This creates a loyal costumer base and those costumer are happy to recommend BBQfun to friends. Marketing strategy summary The aim is to build such a good reputation and brand awareness that BBQfun will be position as the premier outdoor lifestyle store in Queensland within five years. The marketing strategy to reach that aim is to first create customer awareness regarding their services offered, develop that customer base and building costumer loyalty and referrals. The message BBQfun will communicate is that BBQfun offers the widest, most exotic, easy access outdoor lifestyle products in Brisbane. Marketing methods: direct mail, ads and inserts in BrisNew magazine and flyers in the letterbox. The marketing mix will send messages to consumers about the excellent high quality products with a three year guaranty which is unique. It’s necessary to let consumer know the stores are easily accessible and there are lots of car parking available. This will happen through ads, inserts and article in BrisNews magazine, following the BBQfun philosophy ‘customer is king’. Potential new markets Export markets One of the first questions is to ask which country or countries do BBQfun export to first? Should BBQfun start with the USA, being the largest of the English speaking, common law based countries? Or perhaps the UK, because BBQfun is familiar with the culture and the customer? Or maybe BBQfun should capitalise on the Chinese opportunity, because it’s the highest growth market? The selection of BBQfun’s first export market needs to be based on a well crafted pre-export plan and a carefully developed set of criteria. It needs to include a delicate balance surveying multiple initial market opportunities against BBQfun current level of resources, experience, and desired short and long-term business goals. Only then can BBQfun commence the culling process that enhance the business into the handful of optimal markets BBQfun can consider initially exporting to. No company can expected to ace their first attempt in exporting to a new market. Consequences of  failing in a market can be damaging both short-term and long-term. Short-term consequences are better known, such as the waste of resources and time, opportunity cost, and cash-flow. In particular, is the flow-on damage these consequences can cause to your domestic business in the form of distraction and cash drain, and the general apathy that can then develop towards establishing new export markets going forward. But it is the long-term consequences that are lesser known and under appreciated, in particular for companies who are trying to build a sustainable and valuable brand or reputation, with the view to selling their brand or company down the line. One is the penalty in valuation BBQfun may incur when the time comes to  sell your brand or services. Large acquirers, in particular multinationals who have a presence in several of your target export markets, may not pay BBQfun the same value for an unsuccessful export market that they may pay you for your booming domestic one. The following are just some of the benefits of exporting: depending upon BBQfun export strategy BBQfun may have access to overseas capital to fund your business growth in addition to the benefits of greater volume exporting to the ‘other’ hemisphere can greatly assist to smooth out the normal peaks and troughs of supplying the domestic market there maybe ‘residual markets’ overseas for products and services that are in decline in the domestic market The mere process of overcoming the numerous hurdles of exporting can sharpen BBQfun’s commercial acumen and improve your business sustainability. Maximise exporting benefits BBQfun domestic business operations can also derive significant benefit from developing overseas markets as follow: Exposing BBQfun products/services to overseas competition forces BBQfun to compare they product offering and in so doing BBQfun may enhance they product or service to be more competitive. This can assist BBQfun competitive edge in their domestic market by either increasing market-share or improving margin—or in preventing overseas competitors competing in their market. As BBQfun’s product may need to be enhanced to market overseas—so may they marketing message and materials. Different markets require information presented in different ways (in addition to using new languages). The information gained this way can provide a reach stream of innovative introductions into BBQfun’s domestic market. To successfully access export markets may require changes to internal systems and processes—all of which can/should be used to enhance service delivery in the domestic market. Typically expanding into export markets requires bringing additional skills into the business and this can be achieved through training, hiring qualifies staff or outsourcing support. Is BBQfun export ready? Notwithstanding the above developing overseas markets is not for the fainthearted—penetrating new markets with different languages, cultures and currencies requires time, skills, concerted effort and cash (working capital). If done incorrectly chasing export markets can potentially negatively impact the domestic business. The first step is to evaluate your readiness for export. To address this question you must answer the questions: Does BBQfun has or can get access to appropriate skills? Does BBQfun has the capacity now (product or service delivery) to service export markets? Is that capacity scalable, what are the limitations? Will developing export markets draw resources, skills, money and capacity? Typically export markets involve a longer payment cycle and a reduced margin plus volumes can be significant. Can BBQfun fund this additional working capital or can it source the appropriate funds? Has BBQfun researched target markets in depth and been able to identify how the value proposition of they product or service differs from local and other international competition? BBQfun has great potential to expand to foreign markets. Marketing opportunities Business development strategies seek to match marketing opportunities to the organisations resources (what it can do) and its objectives (what management wants to do). It is useful to have a framework for thinking about the broad kinds of marketing opportunities we seek to find. The Ansoff’s model is one of the best tools for organisations to develop market and product expansion strategies. [pic] All organisations must find new attractive marketing opportunities to grow. But the challenge lies in determining which marketing opportunity offers the most long-term success. Marketing mix Product New products have been introduced and some discontinued. BBQfun offered australian made and imported products with the focus of australian made. This is a positive balances on current demands of customer. This means customers getting a wider range of different products and they can decide on quality and price. Price Price is an important part of a retail marketing mix. If BBQfun’s customers cannot afford the products, they are unlikely to frequent your store. Most of the products in BBQfun’s store should be in a comfortable range for their target audience base. To get this information, BBQfun will need to perform an audience analysis to get an idea of median income and spending power. To create a sense of desire and to give an option for a splurge, BBQfun can also sell some itmes that are priced just out of your target customer’s normal price range. Place In retail, the design of the store and the way BBQfun present their products is an important part of the marketing mix. The display should fit BBQfun image so that customers encounter a cohesive experience. In a high-end retailer, products are often placed father apart to create a sense of scarcity and exclusivity; in a computer store, display models are set at waist height to allow testing. Placement can help bring certain products to attention and promote itmes BBQfun want to sell more of. Promotion Promotion is the most recognisable part of the marketing mix. It involves all of the marketing activities BBQfun does to let their customers know about the products they offer. For a retail outlet, BBQfun might advertise in newspapers and on the radio, start a social marketing campaign, use marketing emails, hand out flyers or plan grand-opening events. BBQfun promotional campaigns should be targeted to they customer base. Choose publications that they read, stations they listen to or watch, and copy or graphic design that will resonate with them. ecommerce Australia’s bricks and mortar retailers have been doing it tough of late. But then, it is getting hard to remember a time when they werent. But while news reports are filled with stories of companies such as Borders, Blockbuster and Premier Retail closing stores, many of Australias online retailers are going from strength to strength. But with competitors just a click away, they also know that staying ahead of the game in online retail is a never-ending race. Different research showed that three quarters of Australias online retailers planned to increase their investment in technology in the following year, spending more on core systems, mobile solutions, back office integration, and multi-channel retail strategies. Which ultimately should benefit consumers in terms of range and service. Business-to-Business marketing B2B marketing is about meeting the needs of other businesses, though ultimately the demand for the products made by these businesses is likely to be driven by consumers in their homes. Put very simply, business-to-business marketing is the marketing of goods and services to businesses in order to keep those companies operating. The biggest differences between business-to-business and business-to-consumer marketing are the types of goods and services being marketed and the types of entities the goods and services are being to marketed to. B2B marketers promote goods and services that will help other companies run. Some of the things businesses produce for other businesses include equipment, components, raw material, processing services and supplies. In addition, because B2B marketers target only other companies, they have a significantly more targeted market than business-to-consumer marketers. Even when marketing very specific products for a fairly small subset of individuals, the latter type of marketer has a far larger audience than the former. Many B2B marketing is driven by costumer demand. If there are no consumer to purchase a product, there is no reason for a business to exist in order to make it. If that business does not exist, it will obviously not need the products and services offered by another business. Also, the goals of businesses and consumers are often the same. When choosing a company for goods and services, most consumers and businesses will make a decision based upon price, quality, delivery time and their history with the business. Other considerations might be the availability of the product or service and the quality of customer service if something goes wrong. B2B marketing is currently one of the fastest-growing areas of marketing. As technology brings more businesses together, companies are beginning to court each other far more aggressively. And as technology makes the world a smaller place, it becomes more important for marketing and sales professionals to understand and implement the principles of B2B marketing. Direct marketing Direct marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques that can include text messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. Direct marketing messages emphasize a focus on the customer, data, and accountability. Characteristics that distinguish direct marketing are: Marketing messages are addressed directly to the customer. Direct marketing relies on being able to address the members of a target market. Addressability comes in a variety of forms including email addresses, mobile phone numbers, Web browser cookies, fax numbers and postal addresses. Direct marketing seeks to drive a specific call to action. For example, an advertisement may ask the prospect to call a free phone number or click on a link to a website. Direct marketing emphasizes trackable, measurable responses from customers — regardless of medium. Direct marketing is practiced by businesses of all sizes. A well-executed direct advertising campaign can prove a positive return on investment by showing how many potential customers responded to a clear call-to-action. General advertising eschews calls-for-action in favor of messages that try to build prospects’ emotional awareness or engagement with a brand. Even well-designed general advertisements rarely can prove their impact on the organisation’s bottom line. Direct marketing is attractive to many marketers because its positive results can be measured directly. For example, if a marketer sends out 1,000 solicitations by mail and 100 respond to the promotion, the marketer can say with confidence that campaign led directly to 10% direct responses. This metric is known as the ‘response rate’ and it is one of many clearly quantifiable success metrics employed by direct marketers. In contrast, general advertising uses indirect measurements, such as awareness or engagement, since there is no direct response from a customer. Marketing opportunities summary and recommendations Direct marketing campaign Because of a limited marketing budget it is recommended to continue the already successful direct marketing campaign. BBQfun can prove a dramatic increase of sales immediately after articles in BrisNews were published. BBQfun might think about to do the same for the Gold Coast store surrounding area. It is also important to continue with targeting the locals living around the stores with direct mail, flyers and local advertising. The advantages for BBQfun using direct marketing are clear: Direct measurement of success: sending 1000 mails, response is 200 = 20% direct response, sending emails, BBQfun can monitor open rates and click rates. BBQfun can use this through offering specials to consumer. Measuring results by product line, use historical data. If BBQfun usually sell 1,000 units of a particular product a month, and during the campaign response period they sell 1,050, BBQfun has an indication of effectiveness. (When using historical data, be sure to take seasonal variations in sales activity into consideration. ) Specific targeting: directly sending information to individuals, BBQfun can specifically target the demographic they wish to reach. This can enhance response rates as the information is relevant to BBQfun. This also gives BBQfun the opportunity to personalise each interaction, such as addressing emails with the name of the customer or individual. Cheap and quick production: depending on which form of direct marketing you select to use, it is generally cheap and quick to produce. Email campaigns, for example, have little cost, do not take much time to create and are delivered to people’s inboxes instantaneously. Potential to build list of potential or existing customers: if BBQfun regularly engage with potential or existing customers, they can build a database of contacts for future use. This makes targeting even easier for future marketing campaigns, giving BBQfun a pool of prospects to market to. The Internet has made it easier for marketing managers to measure the results of a campaign. This is often achieved by using a specific website landing page directly relating to the promotional material. A call to action will ask the customer to visit the landing page, and the effectiveness of the campaign can be measured by taking the number of promotional messages distributed (e. g. , 1,000) and dividing it by the number of responses (people visiting the unique website page). Another way to measure the results is to compare the projected sales or generated leads for a given term with the actual sales or leads after a direct advertising campaign. e-commerce campaign We are living in the Information age. Internet has changed our lives and these changes are irreversible. The more people get on to internet and search for information, the more opportunities begin to develop for e commerce. There is no choice for BBQfun but to get on to the e-commerce way. Advantages of e-commerce: Internet being a world wide web, opens up the world as a market to the businesses. Businesses can reach out to millions of customers in an instant which is not possible in any conventional mode of marketing. One of the most significant advantages that e- commerce offers is the cost. The cost of marketing online across the globe is minuscule when compared to the actual cost of marketing in the conventional ways. The cost per transaction works out to be very cheap. E-commerce promotes paperless offices and processes thus contributing to savings in terms of resources too. And also looking at e-commerce from a marketing perspective brings the product or the service closer to the customer. It enables the customer to view, read, download and experience the product. The other significant difference from conventional marketing is that the online marketing enables the marketing company to customise its sales pitch or product offering to the customer. As against the conventional modes which target consumers and markets at large, with internet marketing and E Commerce it is possible to target every single individual making it more personalised and customised offer. Ways BBQfun can measure the success of they e-commerce site: Number of orders processed through the site: this is an simple metric to measure on a weekly or monthly basis. Plot the results on a graph and it is easy to see how orders flow through the site and how quickly they e-commerce presence is growing. Number of customers using the site: measuring how many people have registered to use or are using an e-commerce site demonstrates adoption of the channel and the credibility and usability of a site. This metric is a critical e-commerce measure for a brand new site or for a company expanding into the world of e-commerce for the first time. Average cart total: analyzing the average cart totals and whether the totals are trending up or down will help BBQfun qualify the success of their site merchandising and promotional efforts. When average cart totals spike, BBQfun can figure out why so that you can repeat a successful promotion in the future. Cart abandonment rate: the number of carts that are abandoned on the site is a clear indicator of how the site is performing. Taking a closer look at exactly when customers bail out will tell BBQfun where the problem is and keeping tabs on abandonment rate will help BBQfun fix issues before they become major problems. Percentage of total revenue: when looking at the total revenue, what percentage is attributed to e-commerce? Measuring this percentage periodically will give BBQfun a sense of they overall adoption rate and the success of the site. These and many more advantages make obvious BBQfun sense for to market their products and services online. Both marketing strategies will increase the sales figures and the market share, grow the business, strength the reputation of BBQfun and give BBQfun the opportunity to expand to national and international markets as well and everything with a low budget. Sales prediction Least squares method Year |Sales (y) |Coded time (x) |XY |X2 | |2012 |11,000,000 |1 |11,000,000 |1 | |2013 |12,000,000 |2 |24,000,000 |4 | |2014 |15,000,000 |3 |45,000,000 |9 | |2015 | | | | | |Total ? |38,000,000 |6 |80,000,000 |14 | |Mean xy |12,666,667 |3 | |4. 67 | | b = 80,000,000 ( 3 x 3 x 12,666,667 ) = ( 80,000,000 114,000,003 ) 14 ( 3 x 4. 67 ) = (14 14. 01 ) b = 34,000,003 0. 01 b = 3,400,000,300 a = 12,666,667 ( 3,400,000,300 x 3 ) = 12,666,667 10,200,000,900 = 10,187,334,233 y = a + bx Sales prediction for 2015 is $ Apply marketing opportunities to BBQfun E-commerce marketing Entering the e-commerce market is essential because of the change with technological advancements where most organisations and businesses are deciding to follow the trend. E-commerce marketing will help expand BBQfun to sell products internationally and nationally and make new markets and target audiences discoverable. This will result in financial growth with new sales and consumers. BBQfun already has existing storage places therefore are logistically prepared to enter the e-commerce market. BBQfun stock regulations could be managed in the future in respect to sales and marketing research. E-commerce strategies will help with discovering new markets and new target audiences. There are no real costs involved where delivery can be paid for and managed by the company. However, website design, management and IT solutions will have some cost. The website design will need to incorporate yellow colours or bright summer-time themes. Yellow itself is a neutral colour that will appeal to both our male and female consumers. The website needs to be written concisely and in easy terms. After successfully applying e-commerce marketing strategies the next step is to cover B2B marketing in order to achieve brand recognition and increase sales. B2B and e-commerce marketing strategies both align with BBQfun’s business strategies and therefore assist the company in reaching aims. Direct marketing BBQfun already has implemented a direct market strategies through direct mail and local adversing in the BrisNews magazine. Most successful campaign was getting articles written in the BrisNews magazine where BBQfun experienced immediate sales after the articles were published. BBQfun should build on this strategy further by trying to get more publications with popular outdoor lifestyle related magazines in printed and online formats. Where these publications need to be highly tailored to the target audience. Expansion in the direct mailing program to a national level will expand the business further and increase customer loyalty and reputation. There is low cost involvement in expanding the direct marketing segment where distribution, flyer/advertisement design and article placements will increase subtly. All flyers, mail and online material will need to aligned with the corporate design. The corporate design apparent in direct mailing will present a young, refreshing, exotic lifestyle to appeals to our target audience. All suggested strategies applied to BBQfun will lead the company to be a strong/healthy growing business and national and international recognized.

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism

One of the most prominent controversies, associated with the realities of a Globalized/post-industrial living, is the rise of a so-called ‘medical tourism’, which is being commonly defined as, â€Å"The movement of patients across international borders for medical care that is more expensive or less accessible at home† (Connell, 2011, p. 260).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reason why this type of tourism continues to spark public controversies is that it is believed to contribute to the process of Medicare becoming increasingly commercialized, which in turn presupposes the lessened adequacy of healthcare services, provided to those patients that rely on Medicare’s public sector. Moreover, medical tourism is being commonly referred to as such that contributes to the rise of global socio-eco nomic inequalities, as it results in making high quality healthcare services less accessible to ordinary citizens in the countries where this tourism thrives. As it was pointed out by Godwin (2004), â€Å"Since the care offered by medical corporations (that specialize in medical tourism) is far beyond the reach of even the domestic middle class, leave alone the poor, the beneficiaries can only be the ‘creamy layer’ of the economy which will further worsen the health inequality in the country† (p. 3983). At the same time, however, the very concept of medical tourism appears being thoroughly consistent with the qualitative essence of Globalization, as a process concerned with the free-market economies’ functioning becoming ever more efficient, which in turn results in more and more people growing to perceive their ability to enjoy healthiness in terms of a commercial commodity. Nowadays, medical tourism is being increasingly associated with a so-called †˜transplant tourism’, which is being commonly defined as the process of Western patients travelling internationally (most commonly, to the countries of Second and Third World), in order to undergo transplant-surgeries in privately owned clinics. There are two major contributing factors to the rise of this particular form of medical tourism: the fact that in Western countries, there is an acute shortage of donor-organs, and the fact that undergoing transplant-surgeries abroad often proves to be substantially less expensive.Advertising Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just as it is being the case with medical tourism, transplant tourism continues to spark public controversies, due to the fact that, as of today, the concept of transplant tourism is often perceived as being synonymous to the notion of ‘organ trafficking’. According to Budiani-Saberi and Delmo nico (2008), â€Å"Transplant Tourism has become a connotation for organ trafficking. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), recently defined transplant tourism as ‘the purchase of a transplant organ abroad that includes access to an organ while bypassing laws, rules, or processes of any or all countries involved’† (p. 926). Nevertheless, given the fact that, as time goes on, more and more Western patients express their willingness to become ‘transplant tourists’, it would be only logical, on our part, to discuss transplant tourism in terms of a discursively ambivalent concept, the practical manifestations of which are being equally capable of emanating ‘negativity’, on the one hand, and ‘positivity’, on the other. In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this thesis at length. Introduction/Thesis statement It is now being estimated that in 2007, at least 100.000 Britons sought health care services abroa d. The number of Americans that traveled abroad for the same purpose in the year 2008 amounted to 750.000 – while outside of U.S., they have spent on medicinal services close to $2 billion (Reisman, 2010). According to the same author, â€Å"Exports of health services worldwide doubled between 1997 and 2003. They increased worldwide ten times faster than foreign earnings from tourism and five times faster than global exports of services† (p. 3). Essentially the same dynamics are being observed within the context of what accounts for the qualitative essence of today’s organ-transplantation practices. For example, according to the statistical information, provided by World Health Organization (WHO), throughout 2005 there have been 66.000 kidneys, 21.000 livers and 6000 hearts transplanted from donors to organ-recipients worldwide, with 10% of transplantation surgeries having been performed on Western ‘transplant tourists’.Advertising We will writ e a custom research paper sample on Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By the year 2010, the percentage of transplantation-surgeries, performed on ‘transplant tourists’, has doubled. (Biggins et al., 2009). As of today, the most popular transplant tourism’s destinations are: Israel, China, India, Phillipines and Pakistan. In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that in these countries, the functioning of national Medicare systems is being largely deregulated. In its turn, this created a number of prerequisites for the privatized sectors of these systems to grow progressively larger. And, as it is being the case with the owners of just about any commercial enterprise, the owners of private transplantation-clinics in these countries are being naturally predisposed to regard their businesses’ foremost operational task as such that is being solely concerned with providing them with the opportunity to generate financial profits. Such an opportunity naturally derives out of the fact that, in the earlier mentioned countries people’s lives continue to drop in value, due to the factor of overpopulation and the factor of the quality of local living standards continuing to diminish. In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for impoverished locals to consider selling their internal organs for money. After all, as it was mentioned earlier, the very realities of today’s living naturally cause people to regard their healthiness as nothing short of a commercial commodity, which can be purchased or sold, â€Å"Proponents of commercial markets in organ transplants argue that poor individuals should be free to sell kidneys. They should be ‘at liberty’ to choose between the risks associated with selling a kidney and the risks of keeping two kidneys while remaining impoverished† (Turner, 2009, p. 193).Adverti sing Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Given the fact that ordinary citizens (especially the ones from the rural regions) in such countries as China, India, Pakistan or Philippines rarely make more than $5-$10 per day, it makes a perfectly logical sense for them to think about selling their internal organs for money. After having been paid $15.000 for allowing its kidney to be surgically removed, a particular impoverished Pakistani, for example, will not only have enough money to enjoy a comparative prosperity until the end of its life, but he or she will also be able to provide a financial assistance to its numerous children and relatives. On their part, Western ‘transplant patients’ are able to benefit from the availability of donor-organs in the Third World countries, as well. This is because this availability naturally causes prices on donor-organs to remain comparatively affordable, â€Å"For example, hip replacement surgery, which normally costs around $25,000 in the United States, can be performed fo r $5,000 in India. Heart valve replacement surgery, which costs around $200,000 in the United States, costs $10,000 in India† (Sengupta, 2011, p. 312). Nevertheless, it would be quite inappropriate to refer to the rise of transplant tourism as solely the consequence of global inequalities between people in the Second/Third World, on the one hand, and people in the First World, on the other, continuing to become ever more acute. Apparently, one of the major contributing factor to the growing popularity of transplant tourism is the fact that, as compared to what it is being the case in Western countries, which during the course of last few decades were growing increasingly Socialist, in countries that are being considered the most attractive transplant tourism’s destinations (with the exception China), there are simply no armies of useless but resource-consuming ‘medicinal bureaucrats’ in existence. In its turn, this significantly simplifies the bureaucratic procedures, concerned with potential donors providing a legal consent for the removal of their internal organs and with surgeons obtaining an official ‘go ahead’ to perform the transplantation surgery on a particular Western patient. For example, while in their own countries, Western patients are being often required to wait for transplants to become available for as long as 5-10 years. However, while in such countries as China, India or Philippines, they can well expect the required transplantation surgery to be performed on them within a matter of few months, or even weeks (Rhodes Schiano, 2010). Thus, there can be few doubts to the fact that, as it was implied in the Introduction, the emergence of transplant tourism was dialectically predetermined by the very course of a historical progress. And, as it has always been the case with just about every newly emerged socio-cultural practice, transplant tourism can be simultaneously discussed in both: positive and negativ e lights. Analytical part The provided earlier background information, in regards to transplant tourism and in regards to what can be considered the foremost motivational factors, behind the process of Western patients deciding in favor of undergoing transplantation surgeries abroad, allows me to outline transplant tourism’s positive and negative aspects as follows: Background information A.  Transplant tourism allows Western middle-class citizens to save considerably on applying for a number of different transplantation operations. For example, in Philippines, Western patients are able to acquire the ‘new kidney’ for as low as $25.000 (Turner, 2009). Comparing to what are the average prices for kidney transplantation operations in Western countries, this price can be well defined as laughable. B.  Transplant tourism often provides Western patients with the only life-saving opportunity, because by becoming ‘transplant tourists’, they no longer ne ed to wait years and years, before much needed organ-transplantation surgeries are being performed on them. Given the fact that in Western countries it would prove rather impossible to find individuals who would be willing to trade their internal organs for money, and also the fact that procedures, concerned with obtaining organ-donating consents from the relatives of deceased people are being utterly bureaucratized, it comes as not a particular surprise that many citizens on organ-waiting lists die, even before they get a chance to have transplantation surgeries performed on them. Yet, for as long as Western patients have the required amount of cash in their pockets, they now have the opportunity to undergo such surgeries in the countries of Third/Second world, without having to deal a number of time-consuming bureaucratic procedures. Positive/Negative aspects of transplant tourism A.  While abroad, for the purpose of undergoing transplantation surgeries, Western ‘transpla nt tourists’ can never be 100% guaranteed that donor-organs, which will be transplanted in them, were obtained legally/ethically. The validity of this statement becomes especially self-evident, in regards to what appear to be the realities of transplant tourism in such countries as China, Philippines or Pakistan, for example. As it was noted by Saberi Delmonico (2008), â€Å"In 2006, 11 000 transplants were performed in China from executed prisoners† (p. 927). This, of course, represents a big issue for particularly sensitive Western patients. Yet, as practice shows, such their sensitivity disappears rather quickly, once they are being faced with the option of whether to remain moral but dead, or immoral but alive. B.  In countries with traditionally poor hygienic standards, such as Pakistan, China and Philippines, Western patients face the increased risk of having donor-organs rejected by their immune system. The factor of uncleanliness exposes local organ-donors t o the particularly acute health-risk, as well. As it was pointed out by Turner (2009), â€Å"When (transplantation) operations are conducted in unhygienic facilities†¦ and when organ sellers return to polluted, hazardous social environments, removal of a kidney puts individuals at increased risk of health problems† (p.194). In its turn, this explains why Western ‘transplant tourists’ are not being utterly thrilled about the prospect of having to undergo complex surgeries in countries, where the majority of locals do not think that there might be anything wrong about them living in their own filth, in quite literal sense of this word. Conclusion One of the most peculiar characteristics of transplant tourism is the fact that, even though that well-established Western physicians tend to refer to it in strongly negative terms, largely on the account of what they perceive as such tourism’s ‘ethical inappropriateness’, it nevertheless becomes p rogressively popular with more and more Western patients. This simply could not be otherwise, because as it was mentioned earlier, the functioning of Western Medicare systems has long ago ceased being thoroughly reflective of patients’ actual needs. This is why many of them simply do not have any other choice but to travel abroad, even when such a simple procedure as the replacement of the tooth’s filling is being concerned. Apparently, it matters very little for Western patients where their health-related problems would be taken care of, for as long as get what they need quickly and for the reasonable price. We can say that the growing popularity of transplant tourism provides yet additional confirmation to the conceptual validity of the foremost theoretical principle, upon which the free-market economy’s proper functioning is being based – for as long as there is a demand, there will always be a proposition. Therefore, it will only be logical, on my par t, to conclude this paper by suggesting that, in the very near future transplant tourism will attain a fully legitimate discursive status. I believe that this conclusion is being thoroughly consistent with the paper’s initial thesis. References Biggins, S. et al. (2009). Transplant tourism to China: The impact on domestic patient-care decisions. Clinical Transplantation. 23 (6), 831-838. Budiani-Saberi, B. Delmonico, F. (2008). Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: A commentary on the global realities. American Journal of Transplantation, 8, 925-929. Connell, J. (2011). A new inequality? Privatization, urban bias, migration and  medical tourism. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 52 (3), 260-271. Godwin, S. (2004). Medical tourism: Subsidizing the rich. Economic and Political  Weekly, 39 (36), 3981-3983. Rhodes, R. Schiano, D. (2010). The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism:  An ethical perspective for liver transplant programs. Liver Transplantation, 16 (2), 113-117. Reisman, D. (2010). Health tourism: Social welfare through international trade.  Northampton, U.S. Edward Elgar Publishing. Sengupta, A. (2011). Medical tourism: Reverse subsidy for the elite. Signs:  Journal of Women in Culture Society, 36 (2), 312-319. Turner, L. (2009). Commercial organ transplantation in the Philippines.  Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics Journal. 18 (2), 192-196. This research paper on Transplant Tourism as an aspect of Medical Tourism was written and submitted by user Anderson Snider to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.